Proclamation Gum

The Old Gum TreeProclamation Gum

I thought I would point out a significant tree that probably not many are aware exists in Adelaide, the Proclamation Gum.

In this article from Wikipedia you can see some of the historical significance of this old tree. It’s long been dead, but none the less is a very historical part of Adelaide and South Australia.

 

The Old Gum Tree is a historic site in Glenelg North,
Australia.

proclamation-gum-today

On 28 December 1836, the British governor John Hindmarsh
delivered the proclamation creating the colony of South Australia.

A ceremony is held on each year on Proclamation Day, with the current Governor reading out Hindmarsh’s original speech.[1]

The tree itself, probably a red gum, has long since died. Its decayed outer surface was encased in concrete in 1963. Read more here.

 

It’s worthwhile a visit and is very easy to find and get to this tree, which is actually not very far at all from Adelaide Airport.

It’s a nice picnic spot which I am sure all the family would enjoy.

Harbortown and Glenelg are within a stones throw from the Proclamation Gum.

 

How Much Oxygen Does A Tree Produce

Here is some food for thought.

How Much Oxygen Does One Tree Produce?How Much Oxygen Does A Tree Produce

What are some of the benefits that trees provide us? Well apart from shade, shelter from the sun, wind & rain, and visual enjoyment as well as adding value to your property they provide clean air.

In it’s simplest terms trees breathe in our exhaust; carbon dioxide, and release clean fresh breathable air. While sometimes it can’t be avoided to remove a tree it is imperative to ensure that the trees you do have are properly maintained and looked after to provide you with the greatest benefits and enjoyment.

You’ve probably heard that trees produce oxygen, but have you ever wondered just how much oxygen one tree makes? The amount of oxygen produced by a tree depends on several factors, but here are some typical calculations.

Answer: The atmosphere of the Earth has a different composition from that of other planets in part due to the biochemical reactions of Earth’s organisms. Read more →

Transplanting a Palm

Transplanting a Palm

How To Transplant A Palm.  ‘Adelaide’s Affordable Tree Removal’ can help Transplanting Palmsyou with the removal of larger unwanted palms.

Many types of palms  like Sago Palms, Date Palms or Ponytail Palms, will produce offshoots that are commonly known as ‘pups’.

Before you remove a palm pup from the mother plant, you need to make sure that the palm pup is large enough to be taken from the mother plant. A palm offshoot should stay on the mother plant for at least 1 year. Allowing it to stay longer is better though, as this will allow the palm pup to develop its own healthy root system, which will in turn increase your success rate with transplanting the palm pups.

Also, the more pups a palm tree has, the slower the pups will grow. If you plan on transplanting palm pups from a palm tree that has several pups, you may be best off selecting 1-2 of the strongest pups and removing the others.

To check to see if a palm pup is ready to be transplanted, remove some of the dirt around the palm pup. Do this carefully, as damage palm pup roots tend to die back and this will set the pup back. Look for developed roots on the palm pup. If the pup has roots, it can be transplanted. But keep in mind, more roots equals a better transplant .

Once the palm pups have a sufficient root system, they are ready to be removed from the mother tree. First, remove the dirt from around the palm pup, making sure not to damage the roots. We recommend that you leave a ball of soil intact around the main root ball to help minimize damage to the roots.

After the soil is removed, use a sharp knife to cut the palm pup away from the mother plant. Make sure that the palm pup comes away from the mother plant with plenty of roots.

Tips For Growing Palm Pups

Once the palm pup is removed from the mother plant, move it immediately to a container filled with damp, nutrient rich potting soil. When you plant the palm pup, it should sit with the base of the start of the leaves above the soil line.

After the palm pup is in the container, cover the container with a plastic bag. Do not allow the plastic to touch the growing palm pup. Using sticks to keep the plastic off the palm pup is helpful.or you can cut the pour end of a large plastic drink bottle and use that but put a couple of small holes in the side.

Place the palm pup in a location where it will get bright but indirect light. Check the transplanted palm pup frequently to make sure the soil stays moist.

Adelaide Affordable Tree Removal

Craig Ashley

Once you see that the palm pup is putting out growth on its own, you can remove the plastic bag or bottle. You can transplant your established palm pup into the ground in either the spring or the fall. Make sure to provide plenty of water to your palm pup for at least the first year after it has been moved into the ground

For the removal of larger palms give Craig from ‘Adelaide’s Affordable Tree Removal’ a call on (08) 8325 3137. 

Pruning Fruit Trees

Ask Craig – Pruning Fruit Trees

With Winter fast approaching  now is a good time to start planning to prune deciduous fruit trees such as apples, pears and plums. These trees will fruit well whether or not they are pruned. But if the trees grow too tall the fruit is high and hard to reach, and when there is unproductive wood they don’t tend to crop reliably. The aim of pruning fruit trees in the home garden is to assist the tree to produce reliable quality crops, with good size fruit on a manageable size tree.

But the trees will need your attention and loving care. When pruning apples look for a central leader, and prune to make sure there are no competing branches. Pruning Fruit Trees - Adelaide Affordable Tree Removal

Remove and clear the clutter within the tree. We want a nice, open framework and not too many competing branches, because it won’t fruit properly. Remove any crossing and low branches.

Remember the shoot on the end of each tip is called a terminal and this won’t ever fruit, so reduce that to just five or six buds. There’s also a branch that comes off the side of the shoot at an angle of between 30 and 60 degrees and that’s called a lateral. Leave the laterals intact because they will develop fruiting spurs for next season. And the little stubby bits of growth, which are fruiting spurs, will develop apples this season. Try to prune a quarter of an inch past a bud and at an angle. And remove any old fruit left hanging on the tree.

Pears fruit on the little flowering spurs, just like apples, but they also fruit on the tip of one year old laterals, and so when pruning reduce the terminal and leave these to produce fruit for next year.

When pruning plums it is important to train the tree into a vase shape. This means opening up the centre of the tree to let in the light. Look for six to nine nice, strong branches that can form that framework. When working with a Japanese plum look to see what interferes with the shape of the tree. The next priority is to reduce any tall, whippy growth. Plums fruit on fruiting spurs and one year old laterals, so it’s important to remove any old or dead wood that’s cluttering the tree to encourage new growth. The ideal is to end up with a strong terminal with lovely fruiting spurs ready for this season’s plums.

Good hygiene is important so after finishing the pruning please ensure to collect the prunings, and dispose of them and remove any old, rotten fruit because these could harbour disease.

With the colder weather, it’s tempting to stay inside where it’s warm, however a little bit of effort pruning fruit trees will pay off massively.

Here Ed Laivo from Dave Wilson Nursery demonstrates how to prune your fruit trees.

 

 

 

What is a Tree Surgeon or Arborist?

Craig Ashley - Adelaide's Affordable Tree Removal

Craig Ashley

What is a Tree Surgeon or Arborist?

Here is an article about what it means to be an Arborist or Tree Surgeon and what to look out for before engaging their services!

We have been servicing Adelaide and the surrounding regions for many years and are well know for the level of service that we provide.

Arborist

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An arborist using a chainsaw to fell aeucalyptus tree in a public park

An arborist, or (less commonly) arboriculturist, is a professional in the practice of arboriculture, which is the cultivation, management, and study of individual treesshrubsvines, and other perennial woody plants. An informal term is ‘Tree surgeon‘. Arborists generally focus on the health and safety of individual plants and trees, rather than managing forests (the domains ofForestry and Silviculture) or harvesting wood. An arborist’s scope of work is therefore distinct from that of either a forester or alogger, though the professions share much in common.

Contents

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Scope of work

An ISA Certified municipal arborist examining a Japanese Hemlock at Hoyt Arboretum in Portland, Oregon

To work near power wires either additional training is required for arborists or they need to be Certified Line Clearance trimmers or Utility Arborists (there may be different terminology for various countries). There is a variety of minimum distances that must be kept from power wires depending on voltage, however the common distance for low voltage lines in urban settings is 10 feet (about 3 metres).[1]

Arborists who climb (as not all do) can use a variety of techniques to ascend into the tree. The least invasive, and most popular technique used is to ascend on rope. When personal safety is an issue, or the tree is being removed, arborists may use ‘spikes’, (also known as ‘gaffs’ or ‘spurs’) attached to their chainsaw boots with straps to ascend and work. Spikes wound the tree, leaving small holes where each step has been.

An arborist’s work may involve very large and complex trees, or ecological communities and their abiotic components in the context of the landscape ecosystem. These may require monitoring and treatment to ensure they are healthy, safe, and suitable to property owners or community standards. This work may include some or all of the following: planting; transplanting; pruning; structural support; preventing, or diagnosing and treating phytopathology or parasitism; preventing or interrupting grazing orpredation; installing lightning protection; and removing vegetation deemed as hazardous, an invasive species, a disease vector, or a weed.

Arborists may also plan, consult, write reports and give legal testimony. While some aspects of this work are done on the ground or in an office, much of it is done by arborists who climb the trees with ropes, harnesses and other equipment. Lifts and cranes may be used too. The work of all arborists is not the same. Some may just perform consulting; others may perform climbing, pruning and planting: a combination.[2]

Arborist qualifications

An arborist disassembling a tree using a crane and bucket

Arborists gain qualifications to practice arboriculture in a variety of ways and some arborists are more qualified than others. Experience working safely and effectively in and around trees is essential. Arborists tend to specialize in one or more disciplines of arboriculture, such as diagnosis and treatment, climbing and pruning, cabling and lightning protection, or perhaps consultation and report writing. All these disciplines are related and some arborists are very well experienced in all areas of tree work, but not all arborists have the training or experience to properly practice every discipline.

Many arborists choose to pursue formal certification, which is available in some countries and varies somewhat by location. An arborist who holds certification in one or more disciplines may be expected to participate in rigorous continuing education requirements to ensure continuous improvement of skills and techniques.

In Australia arboricultural education and training are streamlined countrywide through a multi-disciplinary vocational education, training, and qualification authority called the Australian Qualifications Framework, which offers varying levels of professional qualification.

In France a qualified arborist must hold a Management of Ornamental Trees certificate, and a qualified arborist climber must hold aPruning and Care of Trees certificate; both delivered by the French Ministry of Agriculture.

In the UK an arborist can gain qualifications up to and including a Masters degree. Generally most arborists only attain chainsaw related safety certificates (NPTCs) in addition to the practical qualifications offered by many land-based colleges. College-based courses include further education qualifications, such as national certificatenational diploma, while higher education courses in arboriculture include foundation degreebachelors degree andmasters degree.

In the USA and Canada a Certified Arborist (CA) is a professional who has over three years of documented and verified experience and has passed a rigorous written test from the International Society of Arboriculture. Other designations include Municipal Specialist, Utility Specialist and Board Certified Master Arborist (BCMA). The USA and Canada also have college based training which if passed will give the certificate of Qualified Arborist. The Qualified Arborist can then be used to offset partial experience towards the Certified Arborist.

Consulting Arborists: Arborists who have been in the field for a number of years often choose to become consultants. This is a special area of aboriculture, and the body responsible for certification of a Consulting Arborist (giving the RCA or Registered Consulting Arborist) is the ASCA (American Society of Consulting Arborists).[3]

Tree Risk Assessor: a recent certification, and one driven by accidents in the industry. This is now required by law in a few areas but recommended anywhere.

Cultural practices

Arborists may employ specialised vehicles to gain access to trees, such as this Unimog equipped with a power take-offdriven woodchipper

Trees in urban landscape settings are often subject to disturbances, whether human or natural, both above and below ground. They may require care to improve their chances of survival following damage from either biotic or abiotic causes. Arborists can provide appropriate solutions, such as pruning trees for health and good structure, for aesthetic reasons, and to permit people to walk under them (a technique often referred to as “crown raising”), or to keep them away from wires, fences and buildings (a technique referred to as “crown reduction”).[4] Timing and methods of treatment depend on the species of tree and the purpose of the work. To determine the best practices, a thorough knowledge of local species and environments is essential.

There can be a vast difference between the techniques and practices of professional arborists and those of inadequately trained tree workers who simply “trim trees”. Some commonly offered “services” are considered unacceptable by modern arboricultural standards and may seriously damage, disfigure, weaken, or even kill trees. One such example is tree toppinglopping, or “hat-racking”, where entire tops of trees or main stems are removed, generally by cross-cutting the main stem(s) or leaders, leaving large unsightly stubs. Trees that manage to survive such treatment are left prone to a spectrum of detrimental effects, including vigorous but weakly attached regrowth, pest susceptibility, pathogen intrusion, and internal decay.[citation needed]

Pruning should only be done with a specific purpose in mind. Every cut is a wound, and every leaf lost is removal of somephotosynthetic potential. Proper pruning can be helpful in many ways, but should always be done with the minimum amount of live tissue removed.[citation needed]

In recent years, research has proven that wound dressings such as paint, tar or other coverings are unnecessary and may harm trees. The coverings may encourage growth of decay-causing fungi. Proper pruning, by cutting through branches at the right location, can do more to limit decay than wound dressing.[citation needed]

Chemicals can be applied to trees for insect or disease control through spraying, soil application, stem injections or spraying. Compacted or disturbed soils can be improved in various ways.[citation needed]

Arborists can also assess trees to determine the health, structure, safety or feasibility within a landscape and in proximity to humans. Modern arboriculture has progressed in technology and sophistication from practices of the past. Many current practices are based on knowledge gained through recent research, including that of the late Alex Shigo, considered one “fathers” of modern arboriculture.[5]

Legal issues for arborists

Depending on the jurisdiction, there may be a number of legal issues surrounding the practices of arborists, including boundary issues, public safety issues, “heritage” trees of community value; and “neighbor” issues such as ownership, obstruction of views, impacts of roots crossing boundaries, nuisance problems, disease or insect quarantines, and safety of nearby trees.

Arborists are frequently consulted to establish the factual basis of disputes involving trees, or by private property owners seeking to avoid legal liability through the duty of care.[6] Arborists may be asked to assess the value of a tree[7] in the process of an insurance claim for trees damaged or destroyed,[8] or to recover damages resulting from tree theft or vandalism.[9] In cities with tree preservation orders an arborist’s evaluation of tree hazard may be required before a property owner may remove a tree, or to assure the protection of trees in development plans and during construction operations. Homeowners who have entered into contracts with a homeowner’s association (see also Restrictive covenants) may need an arborist’s professional opinion of a hazardous condition prior to removing a tree, or may be obligated to assure the protection of the views of neighboring properties prior to planting a tree or in the course of pruning.[10] Arborists may be consulted in forensic investigations where the evidence of a crime can be determined within thegrowth rings of a tree, for example. Arborists may be engaged by one member of a dispute in order to identify factual information about trees useful to that member of the dispute, or they can be engaged as an expert witness providing unbiased scientific knowledge in a court case. Homeowners associations seeking to write restrictive covenants, or legislative bodies seeking to write laws involving trees, may seek the counsel of arborists in order to avoid future difficulties.[11]

Before undertaking works in the UK, arborists have a legal responsibility to survey trees for wildlife, especially bats, which are afforded particular legal protection. In addition, any tree in the UK can be covered by a tree preservation order and it is illegal to conduct any work on a tree, including deadwooding or pruning, before permission has been sought from the local council.

Arborist training, reference materials, and continuing education

The study materials considered to be the reference canon for arborists seeking to advance from entry level to mastery of the trade in arboricultural services are the following:[12]

  • Arboriculture: Integrated Management of Landscape Trees, Shrubs, and Vines, 4th edition (Harris et al. ) – the standard text for introductory arboriculture, and the primary reference for working arborists.
  • ANSI A300 standards for tree care operations (TCIA, all parts) – industry standards.
  • ANSI Z133.1 standard for tree care operations (ISA) – industry standards.
  • ANSI Z60 standard for nursery stock (ANLA) – industry standards.
  • Best Management Practices (ISA, all topics)
  • Plant Health Care for Woody Ornamentals (Lloyd et al.)
  • Abiotic Disorders of Landscape Plants—A Diagnostic Guide (Costello et al.)
  • Trees and Development: A Technical Guide to Preservation of Trees During Land Development (Matheny and Clark)
  • Manual of Woody Landscape Plants (Dirr)
  • An Illustrated Guide to Pruning, 2nd edition (Gilman)
  • Principles and Practice of Planting Trees and Shrubs (Watson and Himelick)
  • Arborists’ Certification Study Guide (Lilly)
  • Plant Physiology (Kozlowski)
  • Urban Soils: Applications and Practices (Craul)
  • A New Tree Biology (Shigo) – the classic text by the man widely considered the father of modern arboriculture, Alex Shigo.
  • The Landscape Below Ground; Parts I and II (Neely and Watson)
  • Arboriculture and the Law (Merullo)
  • Trees and Building Sites Conference Proceedings (Watson and Neely)
  • The Art and Science of Practical Rigging (Donzelli et al.)
  • A Photographic Guide to the Evaluation of Hazard Trees in Urban Areas (Matheny and Clark)
  • Diseases of Trees and Shrubs (Sinclair et al.)
  • Evaluating Tree Defects (Hayes)
  • Guide for Plant Appraisal, 9th edition (CTLA)
  • Insects That Feed on Trees and Shrubs (Johnson et al.)
  • Tree Structure and Mechanics Conference Proceedings: How Trees Stand Up and Fall Down (Smiley et al.)
  • Journal of Arboriculture – (academic research periodical.)
  • Pesticide information: www.greenbook.net and www.pesticideinfo.org
  • Urban Forestry: Planning and Managing Urban Greenspaces (Robert Miller)
  • Natural Disaster Damage to vegetation

Other significant study materials and references for arborists include:

  • USDA Soil Surveys
  • Soil Science (Hausenbuiller)
  • Urban Soil in Landscape Design (Craul)
  • Built Environment (Bartuska)
  • Design with Nature (McHarg)
  • Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology (Sylvia et al.)
  • The Biology of Symbiotic Fungi (Cooke)
  • Mycology – Plant Pathology Internet Guide Book (Kraska)
  • Forest Entomology: Ecology and Management (Coulson & Witter)
  • Plants of the Pacific Northwest (Pojar), or similar local reference
  • Trees of Seattle (Jacobson), or similar local reference
  • Natural Vegetation of Oregon and Washington (Franklin), or similar local reference
  • The Use and Significance of Pesticides in the Environment (McEwen)
  • The Body Language of Trees (Mattheck)
  • Trees (Coombes)
  • Wild Neighbors: The Humane Approach to Living with Wildlife (HSUS)
  • IPM World Textbook (Radcliff, online)[13]

Arborist organizations

  • The Tree Care Industry Association, formerly the National Arborist Association, is a public and professional non-profit organization for the arboriculture field. It has more than 2,000 member companies representing over a dozen countries. TCIA’s Accreditation program certifies that tree care companies that have been inspected and accredited based on adherence to industry standards for performance and safety; maintenance of trained, professional staff; and dedication to ethics and quality in business practices. In addition, they provide safety and educational programs, guidelines for tree service operations, ANSI A300 tree pruning standards, and consumer resources.
  • The International Society of Arboriculture, a non-profit organization, maintains a list of ISA Certified Arborists who have passed a written exam and demonstrated a basic level of knowledge in arboriculture.[14] There are also additional classifications of certified arborists with Certified Arborist/Utility Specialist for those who work near power lines, and Certified Arborist/Municipal Specialist for those who deal mostly with community trees. Other certifications exist for Certified Tree Workers, and the highest level of certification, the Board Certified Master Arborist.
  • The American Society of Consulting Arborists is an organization whose membership is exclusive to those with either a certain level of industry experience, plus higher educational experience or continuing education; some members may achieve a higher status by fulfilling the requirements to become a Registered Consulting Arborist.[15]Consulting arborists generally specialize in the areas of ethics, law, land planning and development, and tree valuation, among others. Consulting arborists are often called on for legal testimony and report writing in various instances where a particular authority on trees is necessary for consequent actions.
  • In the UK, the principal organisation representing arborists is the Arboricultural Association. The association maintain a register of consultants who have demonstrated a high level of technical arboricultural knowledge, and operate an Approved Contractor scheme. This scheme assesses both the technical competence and business practices of arboricultural contractors.
  • The European Arboricultural Council is a European group of arboriculture organizations from various countries.
  • Plant Amnesty is a public education and advocacy group, based in Seattle, dedicated to promoting proper pruning methods. Founded in 1987, Plant Amnesty became an international resource for arborists and their clients in the mid-1990s.[16][17]

Arborists in literature

The protagonist in Italo Calvino’s novel ‘The Baron in the Trees’ leaves life on the ground as a boy and spends the rest of his life swinging from tree to tree in the Italian countryside. As a young man he helps the local fruit farmers by pruning their trees.

Notable arborists

Some noteworthy arborists include:

  • Francis A. Bartlett – founded the world’s leading scientific tree and shrub care company in 1907.
  • Franz Borsova – co-founder of the National Arborists Association of Australia.[citation needed]
  • John Chapman – pioneering U.S. frontier nurseryman and orchardist, commonly known as Johnny Appleseed.
  • Richard Essam – head of the Ontario Union of Arborists and Loggers.[citation needed]
  • Sebastian Junger – author of Perfect Storm and War, before becoming a journalist, was an arborist in Massachusetts.
  • Chuck Leavell – two-time recipient of the Georgia Tree Farmer of the Year award, and author of the children’s book, The Tree Farmer. In 2006 Leavell was appointed by Governor Sonny Perdue to the Georgia Land Conservation Council. He is also an accomplished jazz pianist and keyboardist for the Rolling Stones.[18]
  • Liam McGough – a contestant on the British version of Big Brother
  • Alex Shigo – the father of modern arboriculture.
  • Cass Turnbull – founder of Plant Amnesty, a non-profit education and advocacy group, and author of pruning and gardening books.[19]
  • Benjamin White – a working arborist until injured in a fall from a tree, Benjamin White became an environmental activist, worked as bosun of the Sea Shepherd, and created the sea turtle costumes worn at the anti-WTO protests in Seattle during 1999.[20]
  • Mark Hartley – Actively involved in forming the Australian National Arborist Association and introducing Standards Australia AS 4373-1996. Mark was awarded the Award of Merit from International Society of Arboriculture – In recognition of service in advancing the principles, and practices of arboriculture. (This is the highest honor bestowed by the industry).[21]
  • An arborist blocking down a section in VictoriaAustralia

  • Large tree transplantTownsville, Australia

  • An arborist spurless climbing to prune a tree Australia

  • An Oregon arborist providing a slideshow presentation about tree care and pruning at a garden show in Portland, Oregon

  • A crew of arborists felling a tree in sections at Kallista, Victoria

  • Friendship Oak on the campus of Southeastern Louisiana University is hundreds of years old. Like other mature spreading oaks, Friendship Oak is maintained by arborists to prevent the limbs from growing into the ground.

See also

Notes and citations

  1. ^ American National Standards Institute Z.133- and International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers.
  2. ^ Harris, Richard W., James R. Clark, and Nelda P. Matheny: Arboriculture Integrated Management of Landscape Trees, Shrubs, and Vines, third edition; Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1999.
  3. ^ http://www.asca-consultants.org/find/directorySearch.cfm
  4. ^ “Pruning Standards to Maintain Landscape Trees (3)”. E. Thomas Smiley, Ph. D., Plant Pathologist and Bruce R. Fraedrich, Ph. D., Plant Pathologist; Bartlett Tree Research Laboratory.
  5. ^ Alex Shigo pioneered tree-friendly pruning by Ron Sullivan; San Francisco Chronicle November 15, 2006.
  6. ^ Common Law Branches Off Into New Directions; by Victor D. Merullo; Journal of Arboriculture 20(6): November 1994.
  7. ^ Landscape Tree Appraisal by David P. Mooter, et al.; University of Nebraska–Lincoln Extension; March, 2004.
  8. ^ Guide for Plant Appraisal, 9th ed; by the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers; International Society of Arboriculture; 2000.
  9. ^ See also specific legal provisions for “tree theft” such as, for example, the Revised Code of Washington title 64.12.030 for Washington (State, USA) or similar state, provincial, or local statutes.
  10. ^ Arboriculture and the Law in Canada by Julian Dunster and Susan Murray; International Society of Arboriculture; 1997.
  11. ^ Arboriculture and the Law by Victor D. Merrullo; International Society of Arboriculture; 1992.
  12. ^ Board Certified Master Arborist Application Booklet; International Society of Arboriculture, 2007
  13. ^ Radcliffe’s IPM World Textbook
  14. ^ http://www.isa-arbor.com/faca/findArborist.aspx
  15. ^ American Society of Consulting Arborists – Registered Consulting Arborist
  16. ^ “The Seattle Times: Pacific Northwest Magazine”The Seattle Times.
  17. ^ Berkeley Daily Planet – Friday March 10, 2006
  18. ^ Chuck Leavell – Trees
  19. ^ PlantAmnesty: Fearless Leader: OUR FOUNDER
  20. ^ Thomas Janet, “The Battle In Seattle,” Fulcrum Publishing, 2000.
  21. ^ http://www.arboristnetwork.com.au/Awards.html

External links

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